The city is location of Masuma’ holy shrine, there many religious schools everywhere, many Islamic students and researchers from different part of the world are studying in the city.
Qom as second religious’ city in Iran next ‘Mashhad’ has respectful position for Iranian and other Shiee in the world.
Qom as a metropolis ,125 km far from south Tehran, been noted very long time ago, for its location in the Silk Road. Confection Sohan and rich silky carpet are famous presents of the city. Weather’ city is semi dry and hot in summer and dry cold winter.
The city of Qom, which became province in June 1996, is a city on the desert border, located 140 kilometers south of Tehran. It has been a residential area for centuries before Islam came to it, as a large village, among the many villages around it, and there are numerous historical narratives in how it was founded. One of the most scientific narratives was changing of the word “Komeh” (meaning small houses together) to a small extent KOM, and then converted it into Qom by the immigrant Arabs. Some have also justified Qom from the Komidan, that has been named as part of the region and has been briefly called Kom, have justified it to Qom by migrated Arabs. These dispersed villages were provided with the invasion of Muslim Arabs to Iran, and, like many Iranian cities, a number of Arabs settled there. Naturally, this was after their victory against the indigenous people who lived in these villages. Some of the stories of the Arab and Iranian conflicts written in the sources, including the history of Qom (the most important local geography and written by Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan Qumi in 379 AH).
The Arabs living in this city are from different clans, most of them from of Yemeni Ash’ari people living in Iraq (from the generations of Saeb bin Malik Ash’ari and his cousins) who moved to this city from the decade of 70 or 80 in the first century AH. Their religious and political differences with the Umayya government، are the reasons for their movement from Iraq and their residence in this area. The Ashari Shiite people took possession of the city and stayed on the Shi’i religion. Later, after the burial of Fatima Masoumeh in 201 AH in this city, its religious centrality was more and more established.
Qom and its scientific center
The city of Qom, the first independent center for the twelve Imam’s Shiite religion, has been fully available to followers of this religion since the second century. The people of this city, because of the followings of the Imams, kept their hadiths, and except Baghdad, as the other center, they turned the city into a center of Shi’i hadith. A large number of Qom’s Ash’arites, named has written in the book of Rijal al-Jayashi, the list of Shia authors until the fourth century. in addition, we see the names of many residents of this city, in the Kafi book as the narrator of the news of the Imams.
The scientific reputation of the city declined from the fifth century onwards, and the Shia scientific center in Iran moved to Ray and northern cities of Iran. The new scientific center of the city for the Shiite religion begins from the migration of Ayatollah Hajj Sheikh Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi (1276 1355 AH) to Qom in 1340 AH. Just in the years when the Qajar government was dissolved and the Pahlavi government was formed, the Qom Seminary began with the migration of this man. Earlier and simultaneously, the city of Najaf was considered to be the most important center for Shia scholars.
the titles and the most important products
The city is named Qom, but the official name used in the media as well as the municipality of Qom, is “the religious capital of Iran and the cultural pole”. Qom has different names such as: Shrine of Ahl-Bait, City of Science, Sohan City, City of Sweets, Qanbide (the local cabbage cultivated in Qom), Al-Muhammad’s hangar, Madinah al-Momenin, the Believers’ purlieu, Darul Muhadin and the Crimean city of Beit.
Qom is the capital of Iran’s silk carpet, the computer capital of Iran, the world’s capital of Internet Shia and the second capital of the Iranian child’s and adolescent literature, the pole of motorcycle industry in Iran, the Islamic science software manufacturing hub, one of the three poles of bag and shoes production in Iran, the second post of the book is after Tehran and the largest pole of religious books in the Middle East.
There are several rituals in Qom throughout the year. The people of Qom hold jubilation and mourning ceremonies in the middle of Shaban and Tasooah and Ashura. The people of the city celebrate every year by gathering in the streets of Imamzadeh Ibrahim and moving to the shrine of Fatima Masoumeh for the day of the arrival of Fatima Masoumeh. They simulate a person as Musa ibn Khazraj and give him a camel. This person guides Fatemeh Masoumeh to his own home and at the end of the ceremony, Fatima Masoumeh will be welcome by people. At the feast of the eyed Ghorban, people sacrifice sheeps and distribute it between the neighbors and the poor people.
Other religious ceremony is the day of middle Sha’ban’s day, the anniversary of the birth of Imam Mahdi, the 12th Imam of the Shiites, on Qom’s chaharmardan Street. Many will go to the Jamkaran mosque or Fatima Masoumeh holy shrine in order to participate in the festivities and joys of this day. Qomi youth and children illuminates the streets and alleys of the city.
One of the rituals of Qom’s people is asking for the rain. At this ceremony, people gather in the city’s Imamzadehs and mosques, and pray to the Lord for rain. It was quoted that during the Second World War, a severe dryness occurred in Qom, and people prayed for rain to the Imamate of Mohammad Taqi Khansari, who was a marja of the that time, that a few moments after that the rain began in the city.
In the days of Tasooah, Ashura, Arbaeen and 28th of Safar, the religious groups of Qom move from different parts of the city to the faction of Fatemeh Masoomeh. It is customary for those who migrated to other parts of Iran to return to their cities on these days and mourn in mosques in their city.
The food of Qom has a close relationship with what is obtained by nature. The most popular traditional dish in Ghom is Ghonbid broth. Blend broth baked with local Qom cabbage. Gonabid has a similar taste of radishes and looks like a cabbage appearance.
considering that the Qom water has salty and minerals, having the kidney stone is common between people. People believe that this plant is effective in preventing and treating this disease. Bozpash broke (vegetable), dam pokhtak, kal jush, halvah sesame, halvah shadoneh, halvah ardeh, kasme, cookies and souhan are the main foods of the people.
Some women wear veil(Chador) to cover them. They also use covers such as sweatshirt, mask, kerchief and ababi. In the past, they used to wear a wrapper of Patchin, shirts, pajamas, shalite, vests, arkhaliq and tamon, which were used with simple, sometimes flowered fabrics to make them. The women’s waistcoat was a catton summer and chaghchor.
In the past, men in the city used to wear hats knitted, knit, leather, felt, Pahlavi and Shapou. Qom’s men’s coats also included Sheikh’s shirt, vest, coat, and cassock that were worn with simple and big pants that made from canvas. Their footwear was Givee and Nalein. Today most of men wear simple clothes with cloth pants and t-shirts with jeans pants.
Qom is one of the major metropolises in Iran, located 125 kilometers south of Tehran, the capital of Iran. This city is located along the Qomrood River and in Qom Plain. Qom is the capital of Qom province and also the city center of Qom. This city is located on Iran’s highway of transportation. it as connects Tehran to industrial cities of Iran and on the other hand connect the southern cities to northern cities. This significance is not exclusive, and in the past, Qom has also been important as a result of being located on the Silk Road.
Location of the city
According to the census report of 1395, the Iranian Statistics Center in Qom has 1, 292, 283 people. With this population, Qom is ranked the seventh most populated city in Iran. Growth population in Qom is 1, 3 percent, which is one of the highest rates of population growth in Iran.
Qom has a warm, semi-arid climate. The average temperature in this climate is 14 to 19 degrees Celsius. Qom is 930 meters above sea level, with a gentle slope from the south to the north of the city. The average temperature of the southern city of Qom is 5 degrees Celsius lower from the northern parts of the city. The summers of Qom are very hot and winters in Qom are very cold and dry. In terms of temperature, the best time to travel to this desert city is April, May, September and October.