World Environment Day is the day that selected as an environmental day by the United Nations to raise awareness of the people for environmental protection and to provoke politicians to take decisions on the destruction of the environment and animals life. The history of the Global Environment Day dates back to 1972, 46 years ago. That year, for the first time, the United Nations held a conference on human and environmental issues in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. At the same time, the UN General Assembly approved statement that led to the formation of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). For the past 46 years, UNEP has held a special event in this day around the world. The ceremonies of this day can take many forms, such as street marches, cycling conferences, showing, essay and painting competitions in schools, tree-planting, recycling and cleaning activities, and …. The purpose of such events is to attract public attention to the issues that infect the environment. Each year, one of the major issues that threatening the environment, is the theme of this day.
In ancient Iran, damage to living beings and polluting four elements considered a sin and a crime and in some cases punishment set for the offender.
Since the Aryan tribes, having sought to find a climate favorable to life, migrated to the Iranian plateau to build a great civilization, the attention to the element of nature and the environment all around of this culture has crystallized. Iranians are a dynamic, talented and happy nation, which all their celebrations and customs, were based on the rotation of nature and the transformation of nature. In Iran, agriculture given special significance, and this significance derived from the teachings of Zarathustra, which considered agriculture and arboriculture among good works, which both enhances the satisfaction of God and humankind.
The Department of Environment of Iran has divided Iran’s valuable ecological zones into 4 areas, 16 national parks, 13 national natural works, 33 wildlife sanctuaries and 94 protected areas. Iran has a variety of climatic conditions, in which of 13 known continent in the world, have 11 species in Iran.
Variable climate conditions have created different ecosystems in Iran, this biodiversity has created a significant eco-system in Iran, Nearly 8,000 species or plant species have been identified in this country, of which about 1800 are endemic. . This number of herbs varies are equal with herbs across the continent of Europe. The most well-known endemic herbs of Iran are Laleh Vazhgon (Fritillaries) and Sousan Chalcheragh (Lilium ledebourii).
Iran is a land of four seasons. This attribute is always true for this land, and it is inappropriate to think of it as a slogan of propaganda and tourism, which encourages only individuals to travel to that country and land. Four seasons means that at any time of the year you can see different weather in cities of Iran, as if you are in your favorite season. In the winter, there are cities in Iran that have summer weather, some are have spring lands, and some have autumn colors and smells. This story is true at any time from each of the seasons in this land, but there are cities and villages, despite their small area, have 4 seasons lonely.
Ecological zone of Caspian_Hyrcanian
The Hyrcanian ecological zone like green bar, covers the southern margin of the Caspian Sea and the northern of the Alborz mountain range. The area of the forests of this region, which includes Astara in Gilan province to Glidaghi in Golestan province, is 2086371 hectares. . This ecological zone is associated with many plant species due to soil fertility, temperature variations and rainfall, As more than 80 broad-leaved, 4 softwood species and 50 shrub species have been identified so far, often consisting of beech, hornbeam, oak, maple, alder. The forests of this region are pristine and healthy, forming the belt of third-generation geological trees. These forests, called wetlands or Caspian forests have high ecological and economic values that are among the natural heritage of the world. The forests of 40 million years old considered one of the most valuable forests in the world and famous as natural museums.
Ecological Zone of Iran-Turanian
The area of the forests of the ecological zone of Turanian Iran, which covers most of the central plateau of Iran, is 4666941 hectares. This area is divide into two mountainous regions with cold weather and desert, hot and dry climate, based on topographic conditions and elevation. However, due to the atmospheric conditions of the region, the trees disperse and distant, but due to their vast expanses, they have a variety of plant species, so that 69% of Iran’s plants are located in this area. Major species of the mountainous area are root and almond, and the main species of the region are Tamarisk, Haloxylon, Zygophyllum and Calligonum.
Ecological zone of Arasbaran
The forests of this region, which are part of the semi-humid forests of the country, are located in the province of East Azerbaijan and northwest of Ardebil province. The forest area of this ecological zone is 174838 hectares. Arasbaran forests due to rare and unique vegetation species and high biodiversity, since 1976 supported by UNESCO as one of the biosphere reserves. The diversity of plant species is one of the specialties of this vegetative area, as more than 775 species of plants that identified only in protected areas, 55 of them reported for the first time from Iran. Many forest species in the Hyrcanian vegetation exist in this area, too. However, the main species of this area, such as beech and alder, have not grown in Arasbaran. . This has led to the separation of the area from the Hyrcanian area in the divisions. The main species of Arasbaran area are oak, black oak, hornbeam, yew and maple.
Ecological zone of Zagros
Some sources say that Zagros oak forests date back 5500 years. The establishment and expansion of forest in this area is due to rainfall caused by the establishment of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea system and extends from the Sardasht of West Azerbaijan to Firozabad Fars. . The area of this ecological area is 5440494 hectares. One of the criteria for determining the boundary of this region is its dominant plant species, Iranian oak. However, other major species of this vegetative area are Pistacia, almonds, Acer monspessulanum and wild pears.
Two important functions of Zagros oak forests are water and soil conservation, which, according to dry and semi-arid climate in the country, have an undeniable importance, as it demonstrates any conservation and rehabilitation investment. Zagros forests, with limited and low regeneration, are in the list of protecting forest and need to support.
Ecological zone of Persian gulf_omani
The area of the forest of the Persian Gulf-Omani zone, which is part of the southwest and all southern coasts, is 2,039,963 hectares. Due to the ecological difference, the main vegetation of this area is divide into two territories of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. In the territory of Persian Gulf, extending from the Ghasr-Shirin to the border of the provinces of Bushehr and Hormozgan, the plant species and original vegetation are jujube, Prosopis.
In the Oman Sea, which is part of the province of Hormozgan to Sistan and Baluchistan (the border between Iran and Pakistan), the species of Iranian jujube and all kinds of acacia are the main vegetation. The Gum Arabic tree used in the launch industry is scattered in this territory. Mangrove forests, which are composed of two species of grey mangroves and Loop-root mangrove, are expanding in this area. The mangrove forest habitat is located at the tidal distance of the seas.
About a quarter of Iran’s countries are desert areas. These areas are located between the northern mountains or the Alborz Mountains and the eastern mountains. The most famous deserts of Iran are the Lut plain and the Kavir desert, which has an area of over 360,000 square kilometers.
The Lut plain is one of the world’s hottest and dry areas. The highest temperature in 2005 was maximum temperature of 70.7 degrees Celsius. Scientists have identified the cause of its high heat as dark and dry land, which causes it to absorb the heat of the sun. The Lut desert is the seventh largest wildlife in the world.
On July 15, 2016, with the consensus of all member countries at the World Heritage Committee, the Lut desert listed for the first time as UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Kavir desert or central desert, a vast desert with a length of approximately 800 km and an approximate width of 320 km south of the Alborz Mountains in the northern part of Iran. It is name after its widespread deserts. Salty lake is located in the west of the desert.
This desert is consider as one of the thermal poles of the earth. Most of it is cover by large swamps, and is scattered on the margin of sandy hills and highlands. Moreover, its vegetation is mostly salty (halophyte) plants. The largest sand dune in Iran is an erosion center called Rig-Boland, which begins from Aran and Bidgol and continues to Ardestan. The length of this erosion center is 90 kilometers.